pragmatism. from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article treats pragmatism as a philosophical current. For William James' lecture series. Englisch: [1, 2] pragmatism · Esperanto:  pragmatismo · Französisch: ; Mazedonisch: [1, 2] Wikipedia-Artikel „Pragmatismus“:  Digitales Wörterbuch der. Ludwig Nagl´s paper: “Three Discourses on Religion in Neo-Pragmatism”. (For a video (2) Internet: Entry “Ludwig Nagl”, Wikipedia [annuaire-vacances.com],
Der PragmatismusHis abilities as a team leader with perspective and pragmatism were greatly admired. annuaire-vacances.com Baker was motivated by a sense of political pragmatism. Dojo auf Wikipedia: annuaire-vacances.com%C5%8Dj%C5%8D Thomas: annuaire-vacances.com From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In Understanding and Explanation: A Transcendental-Pragmatic Perspective, Apel reformulated the difference between.
Pragmatism Wikipedia Sisällysluettelo VideoPRAGMATISM in Education - Philosophical Foundations of Education Film und Philosophie : Josef Früchtl, Film as Philosophy. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Summer Semester Philosophisch-linguistisches Konversatorium Der Diskursbegriff bei Habermas und FrГ¤nk. LГ¤ngl. BrГ¶tchen with O. Shields relies primarily on Dewey's logic of Inquiry. Here is one of his more emphatic statements of it:. In the letter to Calderoni, Peirce did not reject all significant affiliation with fellow pragmatists, and instead said "the rest of us". Dewey, JohnLogic: The Theory of InquiryHenry Holt Super Los Aktion Mensch Company, New York, NY, Analysis Analytic—synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Gta Chits Consilience Live Stream Drakula Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical Tennis Spielen Online Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Functional contextualism Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of Pragmatism Wikipedia Scientific Pink Panter Free Games Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science. Metaphysics Epistemology Logic Ethics Aesthetics. Austin A. Isaac Levi. Teoriat saavat merkityksensä ainoastaan, kun älylliset eliöt taistelevat selviytyäkseen elinympäristössään, ja siksi teoriat myös tulevat tosiksi ainoastaan menestyessään tässä taistelussa. Brazilian social thinker Roberto Unger advocates for a radical pragmatismone that "de-naturalizes" society and culture, and thus insists Pragmatism Wikipedia we can "transform the character of our relation to social and cultural worlds we inhabit rather than just to change, little by little, the content of Oberhausen Casino arrangements and beliefs that comprise them". Who originated the term pragmatismI or you? Increasing attention is being given to pragmatist epistemology in other branches of the social sciences, which have struggled with divisive debates over the status of social Paysafe Voucher Amounts knowledge. Peirce insisted that 1 in reasoning, there is the presupposition, and at least the hope,  that truth and the real are discoverable and would be discovered, sooner or later but still inevitably, by investigation taken far enough,  and 2 contrary to Descartes' famous and Cloud Casino methodology in the Meditations on First Philosophydoubt cannot be feigned or created by verbal fiat to motivate fruitful inquiry, and much less can philosophy begin in universal doubt. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Category Index. Concepts Analysis Analytic—synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Functional contextualism Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity Texas Tea science. The role of belief in representing reality is widely debated in pragmatism. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Please help improve this article by adding Zollinspektor to reliable sources.
Schiller , casting about for a more attractive name for the "anthropomorphism" of his Riddle of the Sphinx , lit, in that most remarkable paper of his on Axioms as Postulates , upon the same designation "pragmatism," which in its original sense was in generic agreement with his own doctrine, for which he has since found the more appropriate specification "humanism," while he still retains "pragmatism" in a somewhat wider sense.
So far all went happily. But at present, the word begins to be met with occasionally in the literary journals, where it gets abused in the merciless way that words have to expect when they fall into literary clutches.
Sometimes the manners of the British have effloresced in scolding at the word as ill-chosen, —ill-chosen, that is, to express some meaning that it was rather designed to exclude.
So then, the writer, finding his bantling "pragmatism" so promoted, feels that it is time to kiss his child good-by and relinquish it to its higher destiny; while to serve the precise purpose of expressing the original definition, he begs to announce the birth of the word "pragmaticism", which is ugly enough to be safe from kidnappers.
Then, in a surviving draft letter to Calderoni, dated by the CP editors as circa that same year , Peirce said regarding his above-quoted discussion:.
In the April number of the Monist I proposed that the word 'pragmatism' should hereafter be used somewhat loosely to signify affiliation with Schiller , James , Dewey , Royce , and the rest of us, while the particular doctrine which I invented the word to denote, which is your first kind of pragmatism, should be called 'pragmaticism.
Indeed in the Monist article Peirce had said that the coinage "pragmaticism" was intended "to serve the precise purpose of expressing the original definition".
Of course this does not mean that Peirce regarded his fellow pragmatist philosophers as word-kidnappers.
To the contrary he had said, regarding James's and Schiller's uses of the word "pragmatism": "So far, all went happily. In the letter to Calderoni, Peirce did not reject all significant affiliation with fellow pragmatists, and instead said "the rest of us".
Nor did he reject all such affiliation in later discussions. However, in the following year , in a manuscript "A Sketch of Logical Critics",  Peirce wrote:.
I have always fathered my pragmaticism as I have called it since James and Schiller made the word [pragmatism] imply "the will to believe," the mutability of truth, the soundness of Zeno's refutation of motion, and pluralism generally , upon Kant, Berkeley, and Leibniz.
Peirce proceeded to criticize J. Mill but acknowledged probable aid from Mill's Examination. Then, in , in his article " A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God ",  mentioning both James and the journalist, pragmatist, and literary author Giovanni Papini , Peirce wrote:.
In , in a Metaphysical Club in Cambridge, Mass. Of course, the doctrine attracted no particular attention, for, as I had remarked in my opening sentence, very few people care for logic.
But in Professor James remodelled the matter, and transmogrified it into a doctrine of philosophy, some parts of which I highly approved, while other and more prominent parts I regarded, and still regard, as opposed to sound logic.
About the time Professor Papini discovered, to the delight of the Pragmatist school, that this doctrine was incapable of definition,  which would certainly seem to distinguish it from every other doctrine in whatever branch of science, I was coming to the conclusion that my poor little maxim should be called by another name; and accordingly, in April , I renamed it Pragmaticism.
Peirce proceeded in "A Neglected Argument" to express both deep satisfaction and deep dismay with his fellow pragmatists. He singled F.
Schiller out by name and was vague about which among the others he most particularly referred to. Peirce wrote "It seems to me a pity they should allow a philosophy so instinct with life to become infected with seeds of death.
There has been some controversy over Peirce's relation to other pragmatists over the years and over the question of what is owed to Peirce, with visible crests in titles such as literary essayist Edward Dahlberg 's "Cutpurse Philosopher"  about James, in which Dahlberg claimed that Peirce had "tombstone reticences" about making accusations, and Kenneth Laine Ketner's and Walker Percy 's A Thief of Peirce ,  in which Percy described himself as "a thief of Peirce" page Meanwhile, Schiller, James's wife Alice, and James's son Henry James III believed that James had a habit of overstating his intellectual debts to others such as Peirce.
In another manuscript "A Sketch of Logical Critic" dated by the CP editors as ,  Peirce discussed one of Zeno's paradoxes , that of Achilles and the Tortoise, in terms of James's and others' difficulties with it.
Peirce therein expressed regret at having used a "contemptuous" manner about such difficulties in his Harvard lectures on pragmatism which James had arranged , and said of James, who had died in August "Nobody has a better right to testify to the morality of his attitude toward his own thoughts than I, who knew and loved him for forty-nine or fifty years.
Now, however, I have a particular occasion to write. Baldwin, arrived at J in his dictionary, suddenly calls on me to do the rest of the logic, in the utmost haste, and various questions of terminology come up.
Who originated the term pragmatism , I or you? Where did it first appear in print? What do you understand by it?
You invented 'pragmatism' for which I gave you full credit in a lecture entitled 'Philosophical conceptions and practical results' of which I sent you 2 unacknowledged copies a couple of years ago.
In an article for "The Monist" for , Mr. Peirce says that he "has used it continually in philosophical conversation since, perhaps, the mid-seventies.
I refer to Mr. Charles S. Peirce, with whose very existence as a philosopher I dare say many of you are unacquainted.
He is one of the most original of contemporary thinkers; and the principle of practicalism or pragmatism, as he called it, when I first heard him enunciate it at Cambridge in the early 70s is the clue or compass by following which I find myself more and more confirmed in believing we may keep our feet upon the proper trail.
James credited Peirce again the Gifford Lectures that were published as The Varieties of Religious Experience p. Indeed, it may be said that if two apparently different definitions of the reality before us should have identical consequences, those two definitions would really be identical definitions, made delusively to appear different merely by the different verbiage in which they are expressed.
Peirce, especially the second paper, "How to make our Thoughts clear," [ sic ] in the Popular Science Monthly for January, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Charles Sanders Peirce General Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography Philosophical Categories Peirce Existential graph Peirce's law Peirce's semiotic theory Pragmatic maxim Pragmaticism Fallibilism Synechism Tychism Classification of the sciences Biographical Juliette Peirce Charles Santiago Sanders Peirce Abbreviations.
B:x : Brent, Joseph , Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life , 2nd edition, page x  CDPT : Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms CP x.
Peirce , volume x, page y. Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography Entitative graph Existential graph Hypostatic abstraction Inquiry Logical graph Philosophy of mathematics Philosophy of science Pragmatic maxim Pragmatic theory of truth Scientific method Semeiotic Sign relation Truth theory.
See the discussion of pragmatism toward the end. Depending on the edition, it may appear in Section V or in an "additament" afterward.
Päähuomio kiinnittyi tieteenfilosofiaan. Vahvimmin pragmatismin perinnettä piti yllä John Dewey. Toisen maailmansodan jälkeen Yhdysvalloissa eurooppalaisen loogisen empirismin ja amerikkalaisen pragmatismin ajatusperinteet sulautuivat yhteen.
Suomalaisessa filosofiassa virikkeitä pragmatismista ovat Ilkka Niiniluodon kirjoittaman pragmatismin yleisesityksen mukaan saaneet muun muassa Oiva Ketosen naturalistinen ja emergentistinen tieteenfilosofia, Jaakko Hintikan uuskantilainen ajatus olioista sinänsä tiedonhankintaan liittyvien käsitteellisten toimintojen kautta saavutettavina raja-arvoina sekä Raimo Tuomelan episteeminen eli tiedollinen totuusmääritelmä.
Pragmatismia esiteltiin suomenkielisille lukijoille käännösten kautta jo luvulla , kun maailmalla käytiin vilkasta keskustelua erityisesti William Jamesin tunnetuksi tekemästä pragmatismin versiosta.
Keskusteluun osallistuivat myös eräät suomalaiset ajattelijat. Esimerkiksi Eino Kaila laati nuoruudessaan esittelyjä ja arvosteluja William Jamesin ajattelusta.
Oiva Ketonen kirjoitti Ajatus -vuosikirjaan muistokirjoituksen Deweyn kuoltua vuonna Uuspragmatismi on yhteisnimitys erilaisille ajattelijoille, joista osa on jyrkästikin eri mieltä toistensa kanssa, kuten Richard Rorty ja Hilary Putnam.
Lewis suhtautui hyvin kriittisesti John Deweyyn. Merkittäviin analyyttisen perinteen edustajiin kuuluvat C. Lewis, W. Quine , Donald Davidson , Hilary Putnam sekä Richard Rorty varhaisissa teoksissaan.
Stanley Fish , Jürgen Habermas ja myöhempi Rorty ovat lähempänä mannermaista perinnettä. Uusklassinen pragmatismi, joka on kätevä mutta harvoin käytetty nimitys, on nimitys niille ajattelijoille, jotka ovat pysyneet lähempänä klassisen pragmatismin ajatuksia.
Päinvastoin kuin nimestä voisi päätellä, uusklassinen pragmatismi ei ole mitenkään konservatiivista. Kaikkia pragmatisteja ei voi luonnehtia helposti.
Esimerkiksi Stephen Toulminin ajattelu sopii hyvin yhteen uusklassisten pragmatistien kanssa, mutta hän on päätynyt näkemyksiinsä itsenäisesti, sekä klassisesta että uusklassisesta perinteestä riippumatta.
Jälkianalyyttisen ja angloamerikkalaisen filosofian monialaistuttua on mahdollista, että useat filosofit ovat saaneet vaikutteita pragmatistisesta ajattelusta, vaikka eivät tunnustaudu julkisesti pragmatisteiksi.
Hyvä esimerkki on Quinen oppilas Daniel Dennett. Kaikkea pragmatistista tietoteoriaa kuvaa käytännöllisten seurausten painotus: kuinka teoreettiset ajatukset vaikuttavat ihmisten elämään yleensä ja tutkimustyöhön erityisesti.
Täsmällisemmin ilmastuna pragmatistit ovat sitoutuneita tietoteoreettiseen viitekehykseen, joka yhdistää kausaliteetin toimintaan tai järkeen.
Varhaisten pragmatistien tietoteoria sai paljon vaikutteita darwinistisesta ajattelusta. Pragmatistit eivät kuitenkaan olleet ensimmäisiä, jotka näkivät evoluutioteorian vaikutukset tietämiselle: sama perustelu sai Arthur Schopenhauerin omaksumaan biologisen idealismin , koska se, mikä on hyödyllistä eliölle uskoa todeksi, saattaa erota huomattavasti siitä mikä on totta.
Pragmatismi eroaa tällaisesta idealismista siinä, että se haastaa oletuksen, jonka mukaan tietämys ja toiminta olisivat kaksi erillistä aluetta, ja että eliöiden elämässään selviytymiseen tarvitseman tutkimuksen ja totuuden yläpuolella ja taustalla olisi olemassa absoluuttinen tai transsendentaalinen totuus.
Pragmatismi tarjoaa tietoteorian, jota voisi kutsua ekologiseksi tiedonkäsitykseksi: tutkimus tulkitaan keinoiksi, joiden avulla eliö voi saada otteen ympäristöstään.
Pragmatistinen tietoteoria on puhtaasti psykologistista mutta myös realistista : se olettaa ulkoisen maailman, jonka kanssa on toimittava.
Pragmatistit hylkäävät ajatuksen, jonka mukaan uskomusten tulisi kuvata todellisuutta ollakseen tosia — "kopioiminen on yksi [ja vain yksi] tietämisen tapa", William James kirjoitti.
Teoriat saavat merkityksensä ainoastaan, kun älylliset eliöt taistelevat selviytyäkseen elinympäristössään, ja siksi teoriat myös tulevat tosiksi ainoastaan menestyessään tässä taistelussa.
Pragmatistit eivät kuitenkaan katso, että mikä tahansa mikä osoittautuu käytännölliseksi tai hyödylliseksi, tai mikä tahansa mikä auttaa selviytymään hetken, olisi katsottava todeksi.
Esimerkiksi C. Peirce katsoi, että teoreettiset väittämät tulisi sitoa verifikaatiokäytäntöihin — täytyi olla mahdollista tehdä ennusteita ja koetella niitä.
Peircen mukaan totuuden määrittää tieteellisen yhteisön suorittaman tutkimuksen lopullinen lopputulos eli ei mikään yksittäinen ajanhetki. Dewey luonnehti totuudellisuutta yhdeksi hyvyyden lajiksi: kun jotakin asiaa sanotaan todeksi, se tarkoittaa sen olevan luotettava ja se tulee säilymään sellaisena kaikissa ajateltavissa olevissa tilanteissa.
Koska kaikki näkemykset jaoteltiin yleensä joko idealismiin tai realismiin , tämä johti siihen, että pragmatismi luettiin laajalti mutta väärinymmärretysti subjektivismin tai idealismin muodoksi.
Monet Jamesin sanonnoista, kuten "totuuden rahallinen arvo"  ja "totuus on vain apuneuvo",  irrotettiin kontekstistaan ja niitä karrikoitiin kirjallisuudessa muodossa "totuus on se mikä toimii" tai että mikä tahansa ajatus joka on hyödyllinen käytännössä on totta.
Pragmatismin peruslähtökohtana on elävän olennon toiminta sen ympäristössä. Ihmisen kyky teoretisoida nähdään erottamattomana osana älyllistä toimintaa, ei erillisenä alueena.
Teoriat ja erottelut ovat keinomme löytää tiemme maailmassa. Ne abstrahoivat asioita välittömästä kokemuksestamme, ja joutuvat lopulta palaamaan kokemukseen ja selittämään ilmiöt, jotka saivat teoretisoinnin aikaan.
Näin ne tekevät ilmiöistä mielekkäämpiä. Radical empiricism gives answers to questions about the limits of science, the nature of meaning and value and the workability of reductionism.
These questions feature prominently in current debates about the relationship between religion and science , where it is often assumed—most pragmatists would disagree—that science degrades everything that is meaningful into "merely" physical phenomena.
Both John Dewey in Experience and Nature and half a century later Richard Rorty in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature argued that much of the debate about the relation of the mind to the body results from conceptual confusions.
They argue instead that there is no need to posit the mind or mindstuff as an ontological category. Pragmatists disagree over whether philosophers ought to adopt a quietist or a naturalist stance toward the mind-body problem.
The former Rorty among them want to do away with the problem because they believe it's a pseudo-problem, whereas the latter believe that it is a meaningful empirical question.
Pragmatism sees no fundamental difference between practical and theoretical reason, nor any ontological difference between facts and values.
Pragmatist ethics is broadly humanist because it sees no ultimate test of morality beyond what matters for us as humans.
Good values are those for which we have good reasons, viz. The pragmatist formulation pre-dates those of other philosophers who have stressed important similarities between values and facts such as Jerome Schneewind and John Searle.
William James' contribution to ethics, as laid out in his essay The Will to Believe has often been misunderstood as a plea for relativism or irrationality.
On its own terms it argues that ethics always involves a certain degree of trust or faith and that we cannot always wait for adequate proof when making moral decisions.
Moral questions immediately present themselves as questions whose solution cannot wait for sensible proof.
A moral question is a question not of what sensibly exists, but of what is good, or would be good if it did exist. A social organism of any sort whatever, large or small, is what it is because each member proceeds to his own duty with a trust that the other members will simultaneously do theirs.
Wherever a desired result is achieved by the co-operation of many independent persons, its existence as a fact is a pure consequence of the precursive faith in one another of those immediately concerned.
A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, but nothing is even attempted.
The Will to Believe James Of the classical pragmatists, John Dewey wrote most extensively about morality and democracy.
Edel In his classic article "Three Independent Factors in Morals" Dewey , he tried to integrate three basic philosophical perspectives on morality: the right, the virtuous and the good.
He held that while all three provide meaningful ways to think about moral questions, the possibility of conflict among the three elements cannot always be easily solved.
Anderson, SEP. Dewey also criticized the dichotomy between means and ends which he saw as responsible for the degradation of our everyday working lives and education, both conceived as merely a means to an end.
He stressed the need for meaningful labor and a conception of education that viewed it not as a preparation for life but as life itself. Dewey  ch.
Dewey was opposed to other ethical philosophies of his time, notably the emotivism of Alfred Ayer. Dewey envisioned the possibility of ethics as an experimental discipline, and thought values could best be characterized not as feelings or imperatives, but as hypotheses about what actions will lead to satisfactory results or what he termed consummatory experience.
An additional implication of this view is that ethics is a fallible undertaking because human beings are frequently unable to know what would satisfy them.
During the late s and first decade of , pragmatism was embraced by many in the field of bioethics led by the philosophers John Lachs and his student Glenn McGee , whose book The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetic Engineering see designer baby garnered praise from within classical American philosophy and criticism from bioethics for its development of a theory of pragmatic bioethics and its rejection of the principalism theory then in vogue in medical ethics.
An anthology published by the MIT Press titled Pragmatic Bioethics included the responses of philosophers to that debate, including Micah Hester, Griffin Trotter and others many of whom developed their own theories based on the work of Dewey, Peirce, Royce and others.
Lachs developed several applications of pragmatism to bioethics independent of but extending from the work of Dewey and James. A recent pragmatist contribution to meta-ethics is Todd Lekan's Making Morality Lekan Lekan argues that morality is a fallible but rational practice and that it has traditionally been misconceived as based on theory or principles.
Instead, he argues, theory and rules arise as tools to make practice more intelligent. John Dewey's Art as Experience , based on the William James lectures he delivered at Harvard University, was an attempt to show the integrity of art, culture and everyday experience IEP.
Art, for Dewey, is or should be a part of everyone's creative lives and not just the privilege of a select group of artists.
He also emphasizes that the audience is more than a passive recipient. Dewey's treatment of art was a move away from the transcendental approach to aesthetics in the wake of Immanuel Kant who emphasized the unique character of art and the disinterested nature of aesthetic appreciation.
A notable contemporary pragmatist aesthetician is Joseph Margolis. He defines a work of art as "a physically embodied, culturally emergent entity", a human "utterance" that isn't an ontological quirk but in line with other human activity and culture in general.
He emphasizes that works of art are complex and difficult to fathom, and that no determinate interpretation can be given.
Both Dewey and James investigated the role that religion can still play in contemporary society, the former in A Common Faith and the latter in The Varieties of Religious Experience.
From a general point of view, for William James, something is true only insofar as it works. Thus, the statement, for example, that prayer is heard may work on a psychological level but a may not help to bring about the things you pray for b may be better explained by referring to its soothing effect than by claiming prayers are heard.
As such, pragmatism is not antithetical to religion but it is not an apologetic for faith either. James' metaphysical position however, leaves open the possibility that the ontological claims of religions may be true.
As he observed in the end of the Varieties, his position does not amount to a denial of the existence of transcendent realities. Quite the contrary, he argued for the legitimate epistemic right to believe in such realities, since such beliefs do make a difference in an individual's life and refer to claims that cannot be verified or falsified either on intellectual or common sensorial grounds.
Joseph Margolis in Historied Thought, Constructed World California, makes a distinction between "existence" and "reality". He suggests using the term "exists" only for those things which adequately exhibit Peirce's Secondness : things which offer brute physical resistance to our movements.
In this way, such things which affect us, like numbers, may be said to be "real", although they do not "exist". Margolis suggests that God, in such a linguistic usage, might very well be "real", causing believers to act in such and such a way, but might not "exist".
Neopragmatism is a broad contemporary category used for various thinkers that incorporate important insights of, and yet significantly diverge from, the classical pragmatists.
This divergence may occur either in their philosophical methodology many of them are loyal to the analytic tradition or in conceptual formation: for example, conceptual pragmatist C.
Lewis was very critical of Dewey; neopragmatist Richard Rorty disliked Peirce. Important analytic pragmatists include early Richard Rorty who was the first to develop neopragmatist philosophy in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature ,  Hilary Putnam , W.
Quine , and Donald Davidson. Brazilian social thinker Roberto Unger advocates for a radical pragmatism , one that "de-naturalizes" society and culture, and thus insists that we can "transform the character of our relation to social and cultural worlds we inhabit rather than just to change, little by little, the content of the arrangements and beliefs that comprise them".
Neopragmatist thinkers who are more loyal to classical pragmatism include Sidney Hook and Susan Haack known for the theory of foundherentism.
Many pragmatist ideas especially those of Peirce find a natural expression in the decision-theoretic reconstruction of epistemology pursued in the work of Isaac Levi.
Nicholas Rescher advocates his version of methodological pragmatism , based on construing pragmatic efficacy not as a replacement for truths but as a means to its evidentiation.
Not all pragmatists are easily characterized. With the advent of postanalytic philosophy and the diversification of Anglo-American philosophy, many philosophers were influenced by pragmatist thought without necessarily publicly committing themselves to that philosophical school.
Daniel Dennett , a student of Quine's, falls into this category, as does Stephen Toulmin , who arrived at his philosophical position via Wittgenstein , whom he calls "a pragmatist of a sophisticated kind" foreword for Dewey in the edition, p.
Another example is Mark Johnson whose embodied philosophy Lakoff and Johnson shares its psychologism, direct realism and anti-cartesianism with pragmatism.
Conceptual pragmatism is a theory of knowledge originating with the work of the philosopher and logician Clarence Irving Lewis.
The epistemology of conceptual pragmatism was first formulated in the book Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge. It often is seen as opposed to structural problems connected to the French critical theory of Pierre Bourdieu.
French pragmatism has more recently made inroads into American sociology as well. Philosophers John R. Shook and Tibor Solymosi said that "each new generation rediscovers and reinvents its own versions of pragmatism by applying the best available practical and scientific methods to philosophical problems of contemporary concern".
In the 20th century, the movements of logical positivism and ordinary language philosophy have similarities with pragmatism.
Like pragmatism, logical positivism provides a verification criterion of meaning that is supposed to rid us of nonsense metaphysics; however, logical positivism doesn't stress action as pragmatism does.
The pragmatists rarely used their maxim of meaning to rule out all metaphysics as nonsense. Usually, pragmatism was put forth to correct metaphysical doctrines or to construct empirically verifiable ones rather than to provide a wholesale rejection.
Ordinary language philosophy is closer to pragmatism than other philosophy of language because of its nominalist character although Peirce's pragmatism is not nominalist  and because it takes the broader functioning of language in an environment as its focus instead of investigating abstract relations between language and world.
Pragmatism has ties to process philosophy. Much of the classical pragmatists' work developed in dialogue with process philosophers such as Henri Bergson and Alfred North Whitehead , who aren't usually considered pragmatists because they differ so much on other points Douglas Browning et al.
Behaviorism and functionalism in psychology and sociology also have ties to pragmatism, which is not surprising considering that James and Dewey were both scholars of psychology and that Mead became a sociologist.
Pragmatism emphasizes the connection between thought and action. Applied fields like public administration ,  political science ,  leadership studies,  international relations ,  conflict resolution,  and research methodology  have incorporated the tenets of pragmatism in their field.
Often this connection is made using Dewey and Addams's expansive notion of democracy. In the early 20th century, Symbolic interactionism , a major perspective within sociological social psychology, was derived from pragmatism, especially the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley , as well as that of Peirce and William James.
Increasing attention is being given to pragmatist epistemology in other branches of the social sciences, which have struggled with divisive debates over the status of social scientific knowledge.
Enthusiasts suggest that pragmatism offers an approach that is both pluralist and practical. The classical pragmatism of John Dewey , William James , and Charles Sanders Peirce has influenced research in the field of public administration.
Scholars claim classical pragmatism had a profound influence on the origin of the field of public administration. Public administrators are also responsible for the day-to-day work with citizens.
Dewey's participatory democracy can be applied in this environment. Dewey and James' notion of theory as a tool, helps administrators craft theories to resolve policy and administrative problems.
Further, the birth of American public administration coincides closely with the period of greatest influence of the classical pragmatists.
Which pragmatism classical pragmatism or neo-pragmatism makes the most sense in public administration has been the source of debate.
The debate began when Patricia M. Shields introduced Dewey's notion of the Community of Inquiry. Miller  and Shields   also responded.
In addition, applied scholarship of public administration that assesses charter schools ,  contracting out or outsourcing ,  financial management,  performance measurement ,  urban quality of life initiatives,  and urban planning  in part draws on the ideas of classical pragmatism in the development of the conceptual framework and focus of analysis.
The health sector's administrators' use of pragmatism has been criticized as incomplete in its pragmatism, however,  according to the classical pragmatists, knowledge is always shaped by human interests.
The administrator's focus on "outcomes" simply advances their own interest, and this focus on outcomes often undermines their citizen's interests, which often are more concerned with process.
On the other hand, David Brendel argues that pragmatism's ability to bridge dualisms, focus on practical problems, include multiple perspectives, incorporate participation from interested parties patient, family, health team , and provisional nature makes it well suited to address problems in this area.
Since the mid s, feminist philosophers have re-discovered classical pragmatism as a source of feminist theories. Works by Seigfried,  Duran,  Keith,  and Whipps  explore the historic and philosophic links between feminism and pragmatism.
The connection between pragmatism and feminism took so long to be rediscovered because pragmatism itself was eclipsed by logical positivism during the middle decades of the twentieth century.
As a result, it was lost from femininist discourse. Feminists now consider pragmatism's greatest strength to be the very features that led to its decline.
These are "persistent and early criticisms of positivist interpretations of scientific methodology; disclosure of value dimension of factual claims"; viewing aesthetics as informing everyday experience; subordinating logical analysis to political, cultural, and social issues; linking the dominant discourses with domination; "realigning theory with praxis; and resisting the turn to epistemology and instead emphasizing concrete experience".
Feminist philosophers point to Jane Addams as a founder of classical pragmatism. Mary Parker Follett was also an important feminist pragmatist concerned with organizational operation during the early decades of the 20th century.
Jane Addams, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead developed their philosophies as all three became friends, influenced each other, and were engaged in the Hull House experience and women's rights causes.
In the essay "The Thirteen Pragmatisms", Arthur Oncken Lovejoy argued that there's significant ambiguity in the notion of the effects of the truth of a proposition and those of belief in a proposition in order to highlight that many pragmatists had failed to recognize that distinction.
Franciscan monk Celestine Bittle presented multiple criticisms of pragmatism in his book Reality and the Mind: Epistemology. For Bittle, defining truth as what is useful is a "perversion of language".
Therefore, the problem of knowledge posed by the intellect is not solved, but rather renamed. Renaming truth as a product of the will cannot help it solve the problems of the intellect, according to Bittle.
Bittle cited what he saw as contradictions in pragmatism, such as using objective facts to prove that truth does not emerge from objective fact; this reveals that pragmatists do recognize truth as objective fact, and not, as they claim, what is useful.
Bittle argued there are also some statements that cannot be judged on human welfare at all. Such statements for example the assertion that "a car is passing" are matters of "truth and error" and do not affect human welfare.
British philosopher Bertrand Russell devoted a chapter each to James and Dewey in his book A History of Western Philosophy ; Russell pointed out areas in which he agreed with them but also ridiculed James's views on truth and Dewey's views on inquiry.
Neopragmatism as represented by Richard Rorty has been criticized as relativistic both by other neopragmatists such as Susan Haack Haack and by many analytic philosophers Dennett Rorty's early analytic work, however, differs notably from his later work which some, including Rorty, consider to be closer to literary criticism than to philosophy, and which attracts the brunt of criticism from his detractors.
I refer to Mr. Charles S. Peirce, with whose very existence as a philosopher I dare say many of you are unacquainted.
He is one of the most original of contemporary thinkers; and the principle of practicalism or pragmatism, as he called it, when I first heard him enunciate it at Cambridge in the early [s] is the clue or compass by following which I find myself more and more confirmed in believing we may keep our feet upon the proper trail.
James credited Peirce again in lectures published in as Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking , see Lecture 2, fourth paragraph.
Indeed, it may be said that if two apparently different definitions of the reality before us should have identical consequences, those two definitions would really be identical definitions, made delusively to appear different merely by the different verbiage in which they are expressed.
Peirce, especially the second paper, "How to make our Thoughts clear," [ sic ] in the Popular Science Monthly for January, I have always fathered my pragmati ci sm as I have called it since James and Schiller made the word [pragmatism] imply "the will to believe," the mutability of truth, the soundness of Zeno's refutation of motion, and pluralism generally , upon Kant, Berkeley, and Leibniz.
Important introductory primary texts Note that this is an introductory list: some important works are left out and some less monumental works that are excellent introductions are included.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the philosophical movement. For other uses, see Pragmatism disambiguation. Philosophical movement.
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Main article: Pragmatic theory of truth. Main article: Pragmatic ethics. Main article: Neopragmatism. Classical pragmatists — [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Charles Sanders Peirce — was the founder of American pragmatism later called by Peirce pragmaticism.
He wrote on a wide range of topics, from mathematical logic and semiotics to psychology. William James — influential psychologist and theorist of religion as well as philosopher.
First to be widely associated with the term "pragmatism" due to Peirce's lifelong unpopularity. John Dewey — prominent philosopher of education , referred to his brand of pragmatism as instrumentalism.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Supreme Court Associate Justice. Schiller — one of the most important pragmatists of his time, Schiller is largely forgotten today.
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Skapa en bok Ladda ner som PDF Utskriftsvänlig version. Sidor som länkar hit Relaterade ändringar Specialsidor Permanent länk Sidinformation Använd denna sida som referens Wikidata-objekt.Long: Who's a Pragmatist: Distinguishing Epistemic Pragmatism and Contextualism. In: The Journal of Speculative Philosophy. 16/1, , S. 39– Joseph. Der Pragmatismus. Ein neuer Name für alte Denkmethoden (engl. Originaltitel: Pragmatism. A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking) ist eine. pragmatism. from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article treats pragmatism as a philosophical current. For William James' lecture series. Wikipedia: Computer-aided software engineering. mation for the Pragmatic Engineer. annuaire-vacances.com (letzter Abruf Mai ).